Burns, Christa., and Michael P. Sauers. “Google Search Secrets”. Chicago: Neal-Schuman/American Library Association, 2014. EBooks.

            In the EBook, Google Search Secrets, Christa and Michael walk through who to use Google’s advanced search feature. By clicking on settings in the bottom right, on Google.com, users can select to execute an advance search. This Google search feature will let users narrow search results based on, language, region, last time the website was updated, type of top-level domains, and much more. Users can choose to specific types of files, such as, images, PDF’s, and Excel spreadsheets, to name a few. They also show that users can search for websites that have specific content sharing rights. These content rights are governed by, Creative Commons dot org. The Creative Commons has a feature on their website that allows website managers to select how they want to allow website visitors to use and distribute the content on the website.

            Even though, this book doesn’t go into specific SEO strategies, one can see how specific aspects of a website can dramatically improve search results. For example, if a website has been written in Spanish, there is no need to be appearing in English search results. By specifying and telling the search engines that a website is in a certain language, it eliminates a website from appearing in irrelevant search results. With the correct programming knowledge, the same tactic can be applied to the other areas of advanced search, allowing a website to have better search results.

Kingsnorth, Simon. “Digital Marketing Strategy: An Integrated Approach to Online Marketing”. Kogan Page, vol. 1, 2016.

Simon, in the book, Digital Marketing Strategy, explains what web or website content can be. From, website articles, to videos, or even, podcasts, can be an important part of a content strategy. He also shows how the buying cycle has changed after the turn of the twentieth century. Showing that consumers shifted from gathering information from magazines and brokers, to company websites, YouTube videos, and comparison websites. Then, based upon the information the consumer has gathered, they make an informed decision with trusted peers or family members.

It is hard to find quality data showing potential investors, that SEO is the start of getting more users to a website and keeping them engaged on the website longer.  Simons data shows, that the higher the rank of a website, on search engines, the longer a user will stay on the site and the less likely they are to bounce, or leave, the website. Then, he moves on to show how few B2C business have a SEO content marketing strategy, and the numbers are pretty low. Only twenty-seven percent say, yes, they have a documented strategy for SEO content marketing.

Kritzinger, and M. Weideman.” Search Engine Optimization and Pay-per-Click Marketing Strategies”, Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, vol 23, no. 3, 2013, pp. 273-286, DOI: 10.1080/10919392.2013.808124, Accessed 27 February 2019.

            Kritzinger and Weideman offer a basic overview of search engine optimization and the role it plays in a search engine marketing strategy. They give great statistical numbers showing how SEO (search engine optimization) is being underutilized.  This evidence illuminates how companies are spending more on pay-per-click advertising and why they are doing so. For the most part, companies are finding that a PPC (pay-per-click) campaign is easiest to implement and produces faster results than SEO. Their evidence shows that approximately eighty-two percent of SEM spending is invested in PPC.

Kritzinger and Weideman pooled good statistical data showing how SEO is as beneficial, as PPC, sometimes more so. They also gathered data showing what search engine users click on the most to prove that SEO results can have greater success over time. What they do not explain is how to gather data on SEO results. Such data is needed to show clients that a SEO campaign is effective. The brief diagrams that are shown can seem somewhat confusing. Nor, does the data show any type of ranking tracker to see how certain queries are stacking up against a PPC campaign. This could be due to the lack of time put into the study and could benefit from a long-term cost analysis. However, the overall study they performed gave great insight into why a client should invest in SEO. 

Lee, Jang, Lee, Sam G. Oh, “Search engine optimization: A case study using the bibliographies of LG Science Land in Korea”, Library Hi Tech, vol. 34 no. 2, 2016, pp.197-206, https://doi.org/10.1108/LHT-02-2016-0014, Accessed 27 February 2019

            S. Lee, Jang, E. Lee, and Oh show how they implemented search engine optimization techniques to improve search rankings from the website http://lg-sl.net. The website for experimentation is for the LG Sangnam Library in Korea. The research method they chose to use was to implement ten SEO (search engine optimization) techniques, and the implications were drawn from three areas: “improved search engine accessibility, increased relevance between site content and search engine keywords, and improved site credibility.” They found that by implementing the appropriate techniques, the website exposure increased along with increase in the number of visitors via search engines.

            The biggest critique to their research is that only one website, for this point we are using their mobile site and regular site synonymously, was experimented with using their techniques. However, most, if not all, of the SEO tactics they used can be used on websites other than library directories. Their results show how to implement a successful SEO strategy. This includes, outlining the types of keywords used, per category, and how they interacted with search engines to make sure their web pages could be found.

Marshall, Perry S., and Talor Zamir. “Ultimate Guide to Local Business Marketing”. Entrepreneur Press, 2016.

The Ultimate Guide to Local Business Marketing teaches its readers the importance of the size of a website, what web pages marketers should focus their energy on and the most important strategy for generating quality back-links. The book illustrates how to generate massive amounts of content. However, the content strategy isn’t limited to making new content. They teach us that most website will have three to eight web pages that generate eighty percent of a websites traffic. So, for best result, SEO marketers should focus on optimizing the pages with the most traffic. Then, combine those efforts with quality back-links and give the efforts about a year to manifest.

Overall, the Ultimate Guide to Local Business Marketing is a great read. It explains how to generate good content and how much content should be produced. Often, agencies don’t have the knowledge of where and how to apply their content marketing efforts. Focusing on optimizing the top ten pages, as pertaining to traffic, while still producing content for more pages, is a great strategy. Most important, are back-links. Getting a quality link from a high ranking, authoritative website, that is relevant to the website that is being worked on, is most crucial. Plus, a good SEO strategy must allocate for time, which they illustrate, perfectly.

Michigan Tech, “Five Ways to Improve your Site’s Ranking (SEO).” Michigan Tech. University Marketing and Communications. https://www.mtu.edu/umc/services/digital/seo/. Accessed 6 March 2019.

To explain the importance of publishing relevant content, Michigan Tech emphasizes honing ones’ web writing skills to improve search engine rankings. Then, they give examples on what are some of the areas to work on while improving those skills, Including using bold, italics, and heading tags on specific key words related to the article. They also explain that part of having relevant content is having current content. By updating articles regularly, a site’s relevancy will be fresh. The article also explains the importance of having a link-worthy site, using alt tags, and making appropriate use of metadata.

The emphasis on improving website writing skills and keeping the content current, by updating it regularly, is an important concept that most SEO articles omit. However, Michigan Tech hit the nail on the head. Search engines look for updated content for users to consume. They also mention the use of alt tags, which describe what a video or image is. This is another important concept the most overlook. Adding alt tags increases the amount of content and potential keyword/phrase usage on a web page. Overall, it is a good article that gives readers useful information that isn’t usually mentioned.

Nabout, Skiera, Stepanchuk, and Eva Gerstmeier, “An analysis of the profitability of fee-based compensation plans for search engine marketing”, Goethe-University, 2011, Accessed 3 March, 2019.

            Within this analysis of a fee-based search engine marketing Nabout, Skiera, Stepanchuk, and Gerstmeier go into great depth how performance-based compensation plans are different from fee-based marketing plans. They apply their test cases to pay-per-click advertising, showing that there are two causes of profit loss in fee-based advertising. The first is, the advertiser overspends and drains the budget, and the other, they don’t spend enough and don’t maximize efforts. They conclude with showing that incentive-compatible compensation plans are better for both parties and thus, increase profits.

            Although this article is an in-depth analysis on how to increase efficiency plans for marketing agencies and businesses alike via PPC, these principles can still be used with search engine optimization. It is a good foundational read on how to properly charge businesses for a search engine marketing campaign service. The article is a bit daunting to read with all the formulas illustrating profit and loss over specific test cases. However, once read through, one can see that the research is solid and should try to use an incentive-compatible compensation plan. So, overall, a very good article that takes a lot of brain power to understand.

PayScale.com, “Average Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Analyst Salary.” Payscale.com,

ww.payscale.com/research/US/Job=Search_Engine_Optimization_(SEO)_Analyst/Salary. Accessed Web. 6 March 2019

            PayScale dot com has a webpage that shows current, average search engine optimization salaries. Currently, the average salary for an SEO employee is forty-eight thousand dollars, annually. They also record the max as seventy-two thousand dollars and the lowest as thirty-six thousand dollars. Their stats show that fifty-nine percent of the employees are male, and the remaining forty-one percent are female. The website give insight into averages on profit sharing and bonuses for SEO employees. Some of the major skill sets required for the job are, Google AdWords, SEM, SEO, web analytics, and Google Analytics.

            There is one aspect that would make one cautious about pulling data from PayScale dot com. They don’t give readers a clear understanding on how they gathered their pay scale data. However, they do list that 350 individuals reported their salaries to the website. Overall, it gives enough information to users about an average pay scale for an SEO job. There are also options to check similar job titles to see how they compare.

USA.gov, “Search Engine Optimization (SEO).” USA.gov. https://www.usa.gov/style-guide/seo. Accessed Web. 6 March 2019.

USA.gov illustrates three ways for website content writers to improve search engine rankings. First, they explain how to use primary keywords. The example list consists of six different strategies of implementation, starting with putting keywords in the URL, first words of the page in <title> tags, optimizing the meta description for search engines to read, page title in <H1> tags, include key words/phrase at least two or more times in the body, and link specific key words and titles about the subject that is being written about. Then, they go on to mention that using secondary keywords in <H2>, <H3>, and <H4> tags. Finally, they explain to keep titles no longer than seventy-five characters, URLs fewer than 90 characters, meta description fewer than 160 characters, and to link to authoritative websites, and avoid broken links.

The overall article is a good layout for starting to work on a website’s SEO strategy. USA.gov laid-out the examples in easy to read and understand with bullet points. However, some users might not understand what certain terms mean, such as, meta description, <H1>, <H2>, <H3>, <H4>, and <title> tags. Thus, links explaining what these terms mean would have been helpful for less informed readers. At the end of the reading, they include resources that are helpful for users wanting to learn more, which link to, Search Engine Land’s Guide to SEO.

Zhang, Sonya, and Neal Cabage. “Search Engine Optimization: Comparison of Link Building and Social Sharing.” The Journal of Computer Information Systems, vol. 57, no. 2, 2017, pp. 148-159. ProQuest, https://login.iris.etsu.edu:3443/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1866465512?accountid=10771, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08874417.2016.1183447.

            In Search Engine Optimization: Comparison of Link Building and Social Sharing, Zhang, Sonya, and Neal Cabage perform an elaborate study to evaluate what produces the best result for $2500. Their study was based on three strategies. First, link building and producing content. Second, social sharing and producing content. Finally, only producing content to place on the website. For each of the cases, they give before and after data showing that link building paired with content writing is the best for long term strategies and produces the best grand total results.

            This article is a great source. They show how to preform each task and give the results they achieved. Not only do they give in depth text evaluation of their results, but they also feature easy to read charts of data, showing results for each strategy. Unlike most articles, this one also shares important tools for tracking progress. These tools are essential for tracking SEO progress and help with implementing an effective SEO strategy. They also used four different metrics to track their results, which include, website traffic, search rankings, domain authority, and ad revenue.